Basic statistic
Statistic idiom
Statistic have been used in various subjects, such as accounting, finance, marketing, production, economics… , so I’m going to talk about some of the basic definitions of statistics.
Here is a sample data below:
Name  BMI  Age  Birthday  City  Married 

Ms. Eula Yost MD  16.35  48  19880906  East Staceyberg  yes 
Mr. Aiyana Sanford I  15.32  44  19810101  Port Saraimouth  yes 
Holly Stark  19.85  42  19780920  Port Chadtown  no 
Emie Wiegand  23.64  25  19800411  Aaronchester  yes 
Guiseppe Barrows  28.38  26  19700107  East Edna  no 
Miss Kaleigh Nikolaus  23.95  23  19940709  South Sallyburgh  yes 
Torrance Jast  25.22  39  19830709  Kaciland  yes 
Arjun Zboncak IV  28.61  21  19710615  Port Woodrow  no 
Data:
The table above is a data set.
Data is the fundimental of statistics, data is the facts and figures collected, analyzed, and summarized for presentation and interpretation.
And the data collected in a particular study are referred to as data set.
Elements:
Elements are the entities on which data are collected. The sample above should be the people that have been collected.
Variable:
A characteristic of interest for the elements. The sample above should be Name
, BMI
, Age
, Birthday
…
Observation:
The set of measurements obtained for a particular element. The value of Name
, BMI
, Age
… are all observations.
Scales of Measurement
There are four scales of measurement:
 Nominal scale: A variable consist of labels or names used to identify an attribute of the element.
 Ordinal scale: Exhibit the properties of nominal data and the order or rank of the data is meaningful.
 Interval scale: the properties of ordinal dta and the interval between values is expressed in terms of a fixed unit of measure.
 Ratio scale: the data have all the properties of interval data and the ratio of two values is meaningful.
Qualitative and quantitative data

Qualitative data: labels or names used to identify an attribute of each element.

Quantitative data: variable with quantitative data.
CrossSectional and time series data
 Crosssectional data: data collected at the same or approximately the same point in time.
 Time series data: data collected over several time periods.
Statistical inference
Population
A population is the set of all elements of interest in a particular study.
Sample
A sample is a subset of the population.
Census
Process of conducting a survey to collect data for the entire population.
Sample survey
Process of conducting a survey to collect data for a sample.